 # Common Core Mapping for High School: Functions

Related Topics:
Common Core for Mathematics

### Interpreting Functions

• Understand the concept of a function and use function notation
• Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context
• Analyze functions using different representations
• ### Building Functions

• Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities
• Build new functions from existing functions
• ### Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models

• Construct and compare linear and exponential models and solve problems
• Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the situation they model
• ### Trigonometric Functions

• Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle
• Model periodic phenomena with trigonometric functions
• Prove and apply trigonometric identities

### Interpreting Functions

 Standard Lessons Worksheets/Games HSF-IF.A.1 Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). HSF-IF.A.2 Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context. Function Notation, Applications and Operations HSF-IF.A.3 Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n-1) for n ≥ 1. Functions and Sequences Recursive and explicit functions HSF-IF.B.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. HSF-IF.B.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function. Interpret Domain of a Function HSF-IF.B.6 Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph. Average Rate of Change Average rate of change HSF-IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. See Below Graphing linear equations Line graph intuition Linear function intercepts HSF-IF.C.7a Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima. Graph Linear and Quadratic Functions HSF-IF.C.7b Graph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions. HSF-IF.C.7c Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior. Graph Polynomial Functions HSF-IF.C.7d (+) Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior. Graph Rational Functions HSF-IF.C.7e Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude. HSF-IF.C.8 Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function. See Below Rewriting quadratic expressions HSF-IF.C.8a Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context. Quadratic Function Applications HSF-IF.C.8b Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02)t, y = (0.97)t, y = (1.01)12t, y = (1.2)t/10, and classify them as representing exponential growth or decay. Exponential Function Applications Exponential Functions HSF-IF.C.9 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum. Compare Properties of Functions Comparing features of functions

### Building Functions

 Standard Lessons Worksheets/Games HSF-BF.A.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. See Below HSF-BF.A.1a Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. Explicit & Recursive Word Problems Recursive and explicit functions HSF-BF.A.1b Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model. Modeling with equations and inequalities Modeling with one-variable equations and inequalities HSF-BF.A.1c (+) Compose functions. For example, if T(y) is the temperature in the atmosphere as a function of height, and h(t) is the height of a weather balloon as a function of time, then T(h(t)) is the temperature at the location of the weather balloon as a function of time. Composite Functions HSF-BF.A.2 Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. Recursive and Explicit Functions Recursive and explicit functions HSF-BF.B.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. HSF-BF.B.4 Find inverse functions. See Below HSF-BF.B.4a Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse. For example, f(x) =2x3 or f(x) = (x+1)/(x?1) for x ≠ 1. Inverse Functions HSF-BF.B.4b (+) Verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another. Verify Inverse Functions Understand inverses of functions HSF-BF.B.4c (+) Read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse. Inverse Functions (Graph, Table) Understand inverses of functions HSF-BF.B.4d (+) Produce an invertible function from a non-invertible function by restricting the domain. Inverse Function (Restricted Domain) Understand inverses of functions HSF-BF.B.5 (+) Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents. Exponents and Logarithms

### Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models

 Standard Lessons Worksheets/Games HSF-LE.A.1 Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions. Linear & Exponential Word Problems Exponential Word Problems HSF-LE.A.1a Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals. Compare Linear & Exponential Functions Understand linear and exponential models HSF-LE.A.1b Recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another. Understand linear and exponential models HSF-LE.A.1c Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another. Growth & Decay Functions Understand linear and exponential models HSF-LE.A.2 Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table). Construct Linear and Exponential Functions Construct linear & exponential functions HSF-LE.A.3 Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function. Increase Exponentially Compare growth rates of exponentials and polynomials HSF-LE.A.4 For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to abc = d where a, c, and d are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e; evaluate the logarithm using technology. Solve Exponential Equations Use logarithms to solve exponential equations HSF-LE.B.5 Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context. Parameters in Linear or Exponential Functions Modeling with exponential functions

### Trigonometric Functions

 Standard Lessons Worksheets/Games HSF-TF.A.1 Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by the angle. Radian Measure HSF-TF.A.2 Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle. Unit Circle HSF-TF.A.3 (+) Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for π/3, π/4 and π/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for x, π + x, and 2π ? x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number. Special Triangles & Unit Circle Trigonometric functions of special angles Unit Circle HSF-TF.A.4 (+) Use the unit circle to explain symmetry (odd and even) and periodicity of trigonometric functions. Unit Circle (Symmetry, Periodicity) Symmetry and periodicity of trigonometric functions HSF-TF.B.5 Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, frequency, and midline. Modeling with Trigonometric Functions Modeling with periodic functions Modeling with periodic functions 2 HSF-TF.B.6 (+) Understand that restricting a trigonometric function to a domain on which it is always increasing or always decreasing allows its inverse to be constructed. Inverse Function HSF-TF.B.7 (+) Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in modeling contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them in terms of the context. Use Inverse Trig Functions HSF-TF.C.8 Prove the Pythagorean identity sin2(θ) + cos2(θ) = 1 and use it to find sin(θ), cos(θ), or tan(θ) given sin(θ), cos(θ), or tan(θ) and the quadrant of the angle. Pythagorean Identity HSF-TF.C.9 (+) Prove the addition and subtraction formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent and use them to solve problems. Addition & Subtraction Formulas

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