|Required Practicals||Chemistry Lessons|
Investigate the preparation of pure, dry hydrated copper sulfate crystals starting from copper oxide including the use of a water bath.
Investigate how paper chromatography can be used to separate and tell the difference between coloured substances. Students should calculate Rf values.
Rates of Reaction
Investigate the effects of changing the conditions of a reaction on the rates of chemical reactions by:
a) observing a colour change (in the reaction between sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acid)
b) measuring the production of a gas (in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips)
Investigate the variables that affect temperature change in chemical reactions, for example acid plus alkali.
Investigate what happens when different aqueous solutions are electrolysed using inert electrodes. Examples of solutions are copper chloride, sodium chloride, and sodium sulphate.
How to accurately calculate the concentration of an acid using titration?
How to use flame tests and a range chemical tests to analyse a range of ionic compounds.
Analyse a water sample and purify a water sample by distillation
Combustion of Alcohols
Investigate the temperature rise produced in a known mass of water by the combustion of the alcohols ethanol, propanol, butanol and pentanol.
Test for Gases
How to test for Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia and Chlorine?
To investigate the change in pH when adding powdered calcium hydroxide to a fixed volume of dilute hydrochloric acid.
Errors in Experiments
Variables in a experiment: independent, dependent, controls
Types of errors: random errors, uncertainty, parallax error, systematic error, zero error
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