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Investigate the variables that affect temperature change in chemical reactions eg acid plus alkali.

In this practical you will:

- react sodium hydroxide solution with hydrochloric acid
- measure the temperature changes during the reaction
- plot a graph of your results and record the temperature change

**Temperature Changes - GCSE Science Required Practical**

Method

- Measure 30 cm
^{3}dilute hydrochloric acid and put it into the polystyrene cup. - Stand the cup inside the beaker. This will make it more stable.
- Use the thermometer to measure the temperature of the acid. Record your result in a table.
- Measure 5 cm
^{3}sodium hydroxide solution. - Pour the sodium hydroxide into the polystyrene cup. Fit the lid and gently stir the solution with the thermometer through the hole.
- Look carefully at the temperature rise on the thermometer.
- When the reading on the thermometer stops changing, record the highest temperature reached in the table.
- Repeat steps 4–7 to add further 5 cm
^{3}amounts of sodium hydroxide to the cup each time, recording your temperature reading in the results table. - Repeat until a maximum of 40cm
^{3}of sodium hydroxide has been added. - Wash out all the equipment and repeat the experiment for your second trial.

Exploring the temperature changes in an exothermic reaction.

Analysis and conclusion

a. Calculate the mean maximum temperature reached for each volume of sodium hydroxide.

Record these means in your table.

b. Plot a graph from your results and draw two straight lines of best fit.

c. From the graph read off the maximum temperature change.

d. This is an example of an exothermic reaction, when heat is given out. Can you explain why
the results you recorded show that the temperature started to fall after a certain volume of
sodium hydroxide had been added?

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