In these lessons, we will learn
- the coordinate plane or Cartesian plane
- the slope formula
- the equation of a line
- the slopes of parallel lines
- the slopes of perpendicular lines
- the midpoint formula
- the distance formula
Related Topics: More geometry Lessons
The following table gives some coordinate geometry formulas. Scroll down the page if you need more explanations about the formulas, how to use them as well as worksheets.
What is a Coordinate Plane or Cartesian Plane?
The coordinate plane or Cartesian plane is a basic concept for coordinate geometry. It describes a two-dimensional plane
in terms of two
perpendicular axes: x and y. The x-axis indicates the horizontal direction while
the y-axis indicates the vertical direction of the plane. In the coordinate
are indicated by their positions along the x and y-axes.
In the coordinate plane below,
point L is represented by the coordinates (–3, 1.5) because it is positioned on
–3 along the x-axis and on 1.5 along the y-axis. Similarly, you can figure out the positions for the points M = (2, 1.5) and N = (–2, –3).
The following video shows how to plot points in the coordinate plane and how to determine the coordinates of points on the coordinate plane.
How to find the slope of a line?
On the coordinate plane, the slant of a line is called the slope. Slope is
the ratio of the change in the y-value over the change in the x-value, also called rise over run.
Given any two points on a line, you can calculate the slope of the line by
using this formula:
For example: Given two points, P = (0, –1) and Q
= (4,1), on the line we can calculate the slope of the line.
What is the Y-intercept?
The y-intercept is where the line intercepts (meets) the y-axis.
For example: In the above diagram, the line
intercepts the y-axis at (0,–1). Its y-intercept is equals to –1.
What is the Equation of a Line?
In coordinate geometry, the equation of a line can be written in the form, y
, where m
is the slope and b
is the y-intercept. (see a mnemonic for this formula
The equation of the line in the
above diagram is:
How to Find the Slope Given 2 Points?
How to Write a Slope Intercept Equation for a Line on a Graph?
What is a Negative Slope?
Let's look at a line that has a negative slope.
For example: Consider the two points, R(–2, 3)
and S(0, –1) on the line. What would be the slope of the line?
The y-intercept of the line is –1. The slope is –2. The equation of the line
How to find the slopes Of Parallel Lines?
y = –2x – 1
This video explains how to determine the slope of a line given the graph of a line with a negative slope.
In coordinate geometry, two lines are parallel if their slopes (m) are equal.
For example: The line
is parallel to the line.
Their slopes are both the same.
How to find the slopes Of Perpendicular Lines?
Write the equation of a line that is parallel to the line 2x - 4y = 8 and goes through the point (3, 0).
In the coordinate plane, two lines are perpendicular
if the product of their slopes (m
) is –1.
is perpendicular to the line y
– 1. The product of the two slopes is
Find the slope of the line that is perpendicular to the line 3x + 2y = 6.
What is the Midpoint Formula?
Some coordinate geometry questions may require you to find the midpoint
of line segments in the
coordinate plane. To find a point that is halfway between two given points, get
the average of the x-values and the average of the y-values.
The midpoint between the two points (x1
) and (x2
The midpoint of the points A(1,4)
and B(5,6) is
This video gives the formula for finding the midpoint of two points and one example to find the midpoint.
What is the Distance Formula
In the coordinate plane, you can use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the
distance between any two points.
The distance between the two points (x1,y1) and
For example: To find the distance between A(1,1) and B(3,4), we form a right
angled triangle with as the hypotenuse. The length of = 3 – 1 = 2. The length of = 4 – 1 = 3. Applying Pythagorean Theorem:
2 = 22 + 32
2 = 13
This video shows how the distance formula comes from the Pythagorean Theorem, and one example of finding the distance between two points.