The present perfect consists of two verbs: helping verb (have/has) and main verb (past participle).The following table shows some examples of the present perfect tense.
Situation 1: The present perfect tense connects the past with the present. It states that something began in the past and it continues to the present. We usually use for or since in the sentence.
She has been in her room since this morning.
It has rained for days.
I have known Tina since high school.
Situation 2: The present perfect is used to express an unfinished period of time. The action likely happened repeatedly in the past, and the present perfect suggests that the action may happen again in the future.
I have taken three tests this semester.
The hens have laid plenty of eggs.
John has gone out again.
Situation 3: The present perfect can be used to talk about experience from the past without giving the specific times that it happened
We have seen this movie already.
I have lost my wallet.
There has been an accident.
Situation 4: We use the present perfect tense to report events that happened in the recent past. The effect(s) of the recent event is still felt or seen in the present.
I have made you a cup of tea.
He has cut his finger.
1) In the present perfect tense the period of time is unfinished and may continue to the future. In the simple past tense the period of time is already over (or closed)
I have taken three tests this semester. (Present perfect tense – I may have more tests this semester)
I took four tests last semester. (Past Tense because the last semester is already over)
2) The present perfect can express general past whereas the simple perfect can express a specific past.
We have seen this movie already. (General past)
We saw this movie yesterday. (Specific past – yesterday)
Have/Has + subject + past participle ….?
Has Simon come home yet?
Have you ever been to London?
Question word + has/have + subject + past participle?
Where has the thief hidden the jewels?
Who have you spoken with?
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