Past Participle

In these lessons, we will learn:

  1. How past participles can be used in the present perfect tense?
  2. How past participles can be used in the past perfect tense?
  3. How past participles can be used in the future perfect tense?
  4. How past participles can be used to form modal verbs?
  5. Some commonly used irregular verbs: the base form (infinitive), past tense and past participle.

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Simple Past Tense
IELTS, TOEFL And English As A Second Language
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Verbs have different forms, called tenses. The tense of a verb tells us when the action happens.

The following table gives some examples of past and present participles. Scroll down the page for more examples.

Past and Present Participles

Past Participle

A past participle indicates a completed action.

For most verbs, the past participle is the same as the past tense and is created by adding a d, ed or ied at the end of the word. These are called regular verbs.

However, the past participles of irregular verbs do not end in ed and may not be the same as the past tense of the verb. Since they are irregular, they do not follow any pattern and the best way to learn them would be to repeat and memorize them.

Present Perfect Tense

We join have or has to the past participle of the verb to form the present perfect tense.

have/has + past participle = present perfect tense

They have gone to the movies.
I have lost my wallet.
She has done her homework.
Have you found your keys yet?
It has not rained for months.
Martha has been sick.

Past Perfect Tense

We join had to the past participle to form the past perfect tense.

had + past participle = past perfect tense

The bus had already left.
Suddenly he remembered where he had hidden the money.

Future Perfect Tense

We join shall have or will have to the past participle to form the future perfect tense.

shall have/will have + past participle = future perfect tense

He will not have got up yet.
When you get this message, I shall have left for London.
When do you think that you will have finished that piece of work?

We join should have, could have or would have to the past participle to form modal verbs.

should have/could have/would have + past participle = modal verb

They should have gone to the movies yesterday.
He could have been more attentive.
It would have been better if she had kept quiet.

This video will review common past participles. It will show you how they are used in American English, and help you better understand them when they are spoken in fast English. (Part 1)

This video will review common past participles and focus on how they sound in fast speech. (Part 2)

List Of Commonly Used Irregular Verbs

The following is a list of commonly used irregular verbs: the base form (infinitive), past tense and past participle.

Base Form Past Tense Past Participle
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
be was, were been
bear bore born/borne
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
behold beheld beheld
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bid bade bidden
bid bid bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
build built built
burst burst burst
bust bust bust
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
clap clapped clapped
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
dare dared dared
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt dwelt
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
foresee foresaw foreseen
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
frostbite frostbit frostbitten
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
go went gone/been
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
handwrite handwrote handwritten
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
inlay inlaid inlaid
input input input
interlay interlaid interlaid
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
learn learnt learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
quit quit quit
read read read
ride rode ridden
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written

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