Past Participle



Verbs have different forms, called tenses. The tense of a verb tells us when the action happens.

In this lesson, we will learn

  • how past participles can be used in the present perfect tense
  • how past participles can be used in the past perfect tense
  • how past participles can be used in the future perfect tense
  • how past participles can be used to form modal verbs
  • some commonly used irregular verbs: the base form (infinitive), past tense and past participle.

Past Participle

A past participle indicates a completed action.

For most verbs, the past participle is the same as the past tense and is created by adding a d, ed or ied at the end of the word. These are called regular verbs.

However, the past participles of irregular verbs do not end in ed and may not be the same as the past tense of the verb. Since they are irregular, they do not follow any pattern and the best way to learn them would be to repeat and memorize them.

Present Perfect Tense

We join have or has to the past participle of the verb to form the present perfect tense:

have/has + past participle = present perfect tense

Examples:

They have gone to the movies.
I have lost my wallet.
She has done her homework.
Have you found your keys yet?
It has not rained for months.
Martha has been sick.


Past Perfect Tense

We join had to the past participle to form the past perfect tense.

had + past participle = past perfect tense

Examples:

The bus had already left.
Suddenly he remembered where he had hidden the money.

 

Future Perfect Tense

We join shall have or will have to the past participle to form the future perfect tense.

shall have/will have + past participle = future perfect tense

Examples:

He will not have got up yet.
When you get this message, I shall have left for London.
When do you think that you will have finished that piece of work?


Modal Verbs

We join should have, could have or would have to the past participle to form modal verbs.

should have/could have/would have + past participle = modal verb

Examples:

They should have gone to the movies yesterday.
He could have been more attentive.
It would have been better if she had kept quiet.


Videos

This video will review common past participles. It will show you how they are used in American English, and help you better understand them when they are spoken in fast English. (Part 1)



This video will review common past participles and focus on how they sound in fast speech. (Part 2)


List of commonly used irregular verbs

The following is a list of commonly used irregular verbs: the base form (infinitive), past tense and past participle.

Base Form

Past Tense

Past Participle

arise

arose

arisen

awake

awoke

awoken

be

was, were

been

bear

bore

born/borne

beat

beat

beaten

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

behold

beheld

beheld

bend

bent

bent

bet

bet

bet

bid

bade

bidden

bid

bid

bid

bind

bound

bound

bite

bit

bitten

bleed

bled

bled

blow

blew

blown

break

broke

broken

breed

bred

bred

bring

brought

brought

build

built

built

burst

burst

burst

bust

bust

bust

buy

bought

bought

cast

cast

cast

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

clap

clapped

clapped

cling

clung

clung

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

creep

crept

crept

cut

cut

cut

dare

dared

dared

deal

dealt

dealt

dig

dug

dug

dive

dived

dived

do

did

done

draw

drew

drawn

dream

dreamt

dreamt

drink

drank

drunk

drive

drove

driven

dwell

dwelt

dwelt

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

flee

fled

fled

fling

flung

flung

fly

flew

flown

forbid

forbade

forbidden

foresee

foresaw

foreseen

foretell

foretold

foretold

forget

forgot

forgotten

forgive

forgave

forgiven

forsake

forsook

forsaken

freeze

froze

frozen

frostbite

frostbit

frostbitten

get

got

gotten

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

go

went

gone/been

grind

ground

ground

grow

grew

grown

handwrite

handwrote

handwritten

have

had

had

hear

heard

heard

hide

hid

hidden

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurt

hurt

hurt

inlay

inlaid

inlaid

input

input

input

interlay

interlaid

interlaid

keep

kept

kept

kneel

knelt

knelt

know

knew

known

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

learn

learnt

learnt

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie

lay

lain

light

lit

lit

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

mean

meant

meant

meet

met

met

pay

paid

paid

quit

quit

quit

read

read

read

ride

rode

ridden

run

ran

run

say

said

said

see

saw

seen

seek

sought

sought

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

shake

shook

shaken

shine

shone

shone

sing

sang

sung

sit

sat

sat

sleep

slept

slept

speak

spoke

spoken

spend

spent

spent

spring

sprang

sprung

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

swim

swam

swum

swing

swung

swung

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

tear

tore

torn

tell

told

told

think

thought

thought

throw

threw

thrown

understand

understood

understood

wake

woke

woken

wear

wore

worn

win

won

won

write

wrote

written






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