Congruent triangles are triangles that have the same size and shape. This means that the corresponding sides are equal and the corresponding angles are equal.
In the above diagrams, the corresponding sides are a and d; b and e ; c and f.
The corresponding angles are x and s; y and t; z and u.
We can tell whether two triangles are congruent without testing all the sides and all the angles of the two triangles. There are four rules to check for congruent triangles. They are called the SSS rule, SAS rule, ASA rule and AAS rule. There is also another rule for right triangles called the Hypotenuse Leg rule. As long as one of the rules is true, it is sufficient to prove that the two triangles are congruent.
The Side-Side-Side (SSS) rule states that
If three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
The Side-Angle-Side (SAS) rule states that
If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are equal to two sides and included angle of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
An included angle is the angle formed by the two given sides.
Included Angle Non-included angle
The Angle-Side-Angle (ASA) Rule states that
If two angles and the included side of one triangle are equal to two angles and included side of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
An included side is the side between the two given angles.
The Angle-Angle-Side (AAS) Rule states that
If two angles and a non-included side of one triangle are equal to two angles and a non-included side of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
(This rule may sometimes be referred to as SAA).
For the ASA rule the given side must be included and for AAS rule the side given must not be included. We must use the same rule for both the triangles that we are comparing.
Compare AAS with AAS
Compare ASA with ASA
Compare AAS with ASA
Which of the following conditions would be sufficient for the above triangles to be congruent?
a) a = e, x = u, c = f
b) a = e, y = s, z = t
c) x = u, y = t, z = s
d) a = f, y = t, z = s
Solution for a):
Step 1: a = e gives the S
x = u gives the A
c = f gives the S
Step 2: Beware! x and u are not the included angles. This is not SAS but ASS which is not one of the rules. Note that you cannot compare donkeys with triangles!
Answer: a = e, x = u, c = f is not sufficient for the above triangles to be congruent.
Solution for b):
Step 1: a = e gives the S
y = s gives the A
z = t gives the A
Step 2: a and e are non-included sides. Follows the AAS rule.
Answer: a = e, y = s, z = t is sufficient show that the above are congruent triangles.
Solution for c):
Step 1: x = u gives the A
y = t gives the A
z = s gives the A
Step 2: AAA is not one of the rules.
Answer: x = u, y = t, z = s is not sufficient for the above triangles to be congruent.
Solution for d):
Step 1: a, y, z follows AAS (non-included side)
f ,t, s follows the ASA (included side)
Step 2: Comparing AAS with ASA is not allowed
Triangles with all three corresponding angles equal may not be congruent. These triangles will have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. They are called similar triangles.SSA Does not Work
Triangles with two corresponding sides and one non-included angle equal may not be congruent.SSA Can't Be Used to Prove Triangles are Congruent
The Hypotenuse-Leg (HL) Rule states that
If the hypotenuse and one leg of a right triangle are equal to the hypotenuse and one leg of another right triangle, then the two right triangles are congruent.
In the right triangles ΔABC and ΔPQR , if AB = PR, AC = QR then ΔABC ≡ ΔRPQ .
CPCTC stands for Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are Congruent.
CPCTC states that
If two or more triangles are proven congruent by: ASA, AAS, SSS, HL, or SAS, then all of their corresponding parts are congruent as well. This can be used to prove various geometrical problems and theorems.
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