Singular Nouns and Plural Nouns



Countable Nouns can be singular or plural.

In this lesson, we will learn singular countable nouns and the different spellings for plural nouns.

Related Topics: More English Lessons

Singular Countable Nouns

When we are talking about just one person, animal, place or thing, we use a singular countable noun.

Here are some countable nouns that are in the singular.

cook

comb

bird

map

stadium

graph

train

ladder


Plural Nouns

When we are talking about two or more people, animals, places or things, we have to make the countable nouns plural.

Plural nouns usually end in s.

Singular

Plural

lamp

lamps

worker

workers

hawk

hawks

place

places

rope

ropes




When the last letters of singular nouns are ch, sh, s or x, you usually add es to form the plural. Some exceptions are stomach and monarch where you add s instead of es. This is because the ch in these words sounds like k.

Singular

Plural

arch

arches

branch

branches

brush

brushes

flash

flashes

bus

buses

address

addresses

box

boxes

fox

foxes

stomach

stomachs

monarch

monarchs




In the case of nouns that end in o, some nouns we need to add s to form the plural whereas others we need to add es to form the plural.

Singular

Plural

kangaroo

kangaroos

video

videos

zoo

zoos

tomato

tomatoes

tornado

tornadoes

hero

heroes

potato

potatoes

 

With some nouns that end in y, we form the plural by changing the y to i, and adding es.

Singular

Plural

lady

ladies

baby

babies

lily

lilies

trophy

trophies

jelly

jellies

story

stories

 

However, if there is a vowel before the y (ay, ey, oy), we just add s to form the plural.

Singular

Plural

bay

bays

way

ways

key

keys

jersey

jerseys

toy

toys

boy

boys

With some nouns ending in f, the plural ending is ves. We change f to v, and add es.

Singular

Plural

leaf

leaves

wolf

wolves

calf

calves

loaf

loaves

thief

thieves

 

With some nouns that end in f or fe, we just add s to form the plural

Singular

Plural

chief

chiefs

cliff

cliffs

roof

roofs

giraffe

giraffes

 

With some nouns ending in fe, we change f to v, and add s.

Singular

Plural

knife

knives

wife

wives

life

lives






The plural of some nouns is the same as the singular.

Singular

Plural

deer

deer

fish

fish

salmon

salmon

reindeer

reindeer

sheep

sheep

 

Some nouns are always plural.

pajamas

jeans

binoculars

goggles

spectacles

scissors

trousers

shorts

pliers

braces

 

The plural form of some nouns is different from the singular form.

Singular

Plural

goose

geese

foot

feet

ox

oxen

child

children

woman

women

man

men

mouse

mice






Videos

Learn English – Singular Nouns and Plural Nouns
This tutorial describes the difference between singular and plural nouns, as well as other number class related issues.

Forming Plural Nouns with s
This video explains the difference between singular nouns and plural nouns. It shows that when we have 2 or more we use the plural form. It also explains that the plural form is made by adding -s to the noun base.

Forming Plural Nouns with es
When a singular noun ends in the letter s, ss, x, ch, or sh, it will usually become a plural by adding an -es

Forming Plural Nouns
When the singular noun ends with a y, the plural noun is formed by removing the y and adding an -ies

Plural Irregular Noun
This video shows how some popular irregular nouns change in the plural form. These nouns do not add the "s" at the end of the word. For eg. man becomes men, woman becomes women, child becomes children, person becomes people, foot becomes feet, tooth becomes teeth, mouse becomes mice, goose becomes geese. Some nouns do not change when they become the plural form, for example, fish and deer.



Some examples of Collective Nouns
A school of fish, a swarm of bees, an audience of listeners, a bouquet of flowers, a bunch of bananas, a forest of trees, a galaxy of stars, a pride of lions, a litter of kittens, a crew of sailors, a range of mountains.





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