Probability and Fair Decisions
Videos and lessons to help High School students learn how use
probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using
a random number generator).
Common Core: HSS-MD.A.6
Common Core (Statistics & Probability)
Common Core for Mathematics
Random Number Generator
Curious how the Lottery chooses their Lotto numbers?
To ensure the fairness and integrity, the Idaho Lottery uses an
industry standard Random Number Generator (RNG). The RNG is
licensed, rigorously tested and approved to create the winning
numbers for the daily Idaho Pick 3 game and for second-chance
drawings, plus big games like the Idaho $1,000,000 Raffle. The
randomness of the RNG is certified by Gaming Laboratories Inc., a
global independent gaming equipment testing corporation.
The RNG uses a minuscule, trace amount of plutonium to help generate
the numbers. Plutonium decays in a completely random method. When
processed with light flashes and an independent computer software
program, the RNG will always produce a truly random selection of
numbers within the range programmed. The RNG is the most accurate
method to ensure complete randomness to any number selection.
Powerball PowerPlay and Mega Millions, which has a live television
draw every Wednesday and Saturday night, does not use a RNG.
Random vs. Pseudorandom Number Generators.
How Machines Generate Random Numbers with Time
Pseudorandom number generators are explained using John Von
Neumann's middle squares method. Machines can't roll dice so they do
a trick to generate randomness - they grow randomness. The middle
squares method is explained from a computer science perspective
using clocks as seeds.
Try the free Mathway calculator and
problem solver below to practice various math topics. Try the given examples, or type in your own
problem and check your answer with the step-by-step explanations.