This and these are used to refer to items fairly close at hand, while that and those tend to refer to items that are further away.
This and that are singular, while these and those are plural.The following table gives the demonstrative adjectives: this, that, these, those. Scroll down the page for examples and explanations.
This is my house.
That is Paul’s house.
These are my shoes.
Those are his clothes.
Did you drop this?
We can do better than that.
What are those?
Who put these here?
A demonstrative pronoun stands alone whereas a demonstrative adjective describes a noun.
That is good. (that is a demonstrative pronoun)
That soup is good. (that is a demonstrative adjective because it describes the soup)The following table gives some examples to illustrate the difference between Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns.
Difference between demonstrative adjectives and demonstrative pronouns
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