In high school, students will be exposed to the concept of real numbers augmented by imaginary numbers to form complex numbers.

Although the notion of number changes, the four operations stay the same in important ways. The commutative, associative, and distributive properties extend the properties of operations to the integers, rational numbers, real numbers, and complex numbers. Extending the properties of exponents leads to new and productive notation; for example, since the properties of exponents suggest that (5^{1/3})^{3} = 5^{(1/3)·3} = 5^{1} = 5, we define 5^{1/3} to be the cube root of 5.

Calculators are useful in this strand to generate data for numerical experiments, to help understand the workings of matrix, vector, and complex number algebra, and to experiment with non-integer exponents.

In their work in measurement up through Grade 8, students primarily measure commonly used attributes such as length, area, and volume. In high school, students encounter a wider variety of units in modeling, e.g. acceleration, currency conversions, derived quantities such as person-hours and heating degree days, social science rates such as per-capita income, and rates in everyday life such as points scored per game or batting averages. They also encounter novel situations in which they themselves must conceive the attributes of interest. For example, to find a good measure of overall highway safety, they might propose measures such as fatalities per year, fatalities per year per driver, or fatalities per vehicle-mile traveled. Such a conceptual process might be called quantification. Quantification is important for science, as when surface area suddenly “stands out” as an important variable in evaporation. Quantification is also important for companies, which must conceptualize relevant attributes and create or choose suitable measures for them.

HSN-RN.A.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. |

HSN-RN.A.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents. |

HSN-RN.B.3 Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational. |

HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. |

HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. |

HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. |

HSN-CN.A.1 Know there is a complex number |

HSN-CN.A.2 Use the relation |

HSN-CN.A.3 (+) Find the conjugate of a complex number; use conjugates to find moduli and quotients of complex numbers. |

HSN-CN.B.4 (+) Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number. |

HSN-CN.B.5 (+) Represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation. |

HSN-CN.B.6 (+) Calculate the distance between numbers in the complex plane as the modulus of the difference, and the midpoint of a segment as the average of the numbers at its endpoints. |

HSN-CN.C.7 Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions. |

HSN-CN.C.8 (+) Extend polynomial identities to the complex numbers. |

HSN-CN.C.9 (+) Know the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; show that it is true for quadratic polynomials. |

HSN-VM.A.1 (+) Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., |, ||v||, vv). |

HSN-VM.A.2 (+) Find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the coordinates of a terminal point. |

HSN-VM.A.3 (+) Solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors. |

HSN-VM.B.4 (+) Add and subtract vectors. HSN-VM.B.4a Add vectors end-to-end, component-wise, and by the parallelogram rule. Understand that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is typically not the sum of the magnitudes. |

HSN-VM.B.4c Understand vector subtraction as w + (–v), where –w is the additive inverse ofw, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction component-wise.w |

HSN-VM.B.5 (+) Multiply a vector by a scalar. v) = (_{y}cv, _{x}cv)._{y}Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple c using ||vc|| = |vc|. Compute the direction of vc knowing that when |vc| ≠ 0, the direction of vc is either along v (for vc> 0) or against (for vc < 0). |

HSN-VM.C.6 (+) Use matrices to represent and manipulate data, e.g., to represent payoffs or incidence relationships in a network. |

HSN-VM.C.7 (+) Multiply matrices by scalars to produce new matrices, e.g., as when all of the payoffs in a game are doubled. |

HSN-VM.C.8 (+) Add, subtract, and multiply matrices of appropriate dimensions. |

HSN-VM.C.9 (+) Understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties. |

HSN-VM.C.10 (+) Understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers. The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse. |

HSN-VM.C.11 (+) Multiply a vector (regarded as a matrix with one column) by a matrix of suitable dimensions to produce another vector. Work with matrices as transformations of vectors. |

HSN-VM.C.12 (+) Work with 2 × 2 matrices as a transformations of the plane, and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area. |

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