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In these lessons, we will look at the graphs of the trigonometric functions: sine, cosine and tangent.

The sine function forms a wave that starts from the origin

- sin θ = 0 when θ = 0 ˚ , 180˚ , 360˚ .
- Maximum value of sin θ is 1 when θ = 90 ˚. Minimum value of sin θ is –1 when θ = 270 ˚. So, the range of values of sin θ is –1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1.
- As the point θ moves round the unit circle in either the clockwise or anticlockwise direction, the sine curve above repeats itself for every interval of 360˚. The interval over which the sine wave repeats itself is called the
**period**.

- The cosine function forms a wave that starts from the point (0,1)
- cos θ = 0 when θ = 90 ˚ , 270˚ .
- Maximum value of cos θ is 1 when θ = 0 ˚, 360˚. Minimum value of cos θ is –1 when θ = 180 ˚. So, the range of values of cos θ is – 1 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1.
- As the point
*P*moves round the unit circle in either the clockwise or anticlockwise direction, the cosine curve above repeats itself for every interval of 360˚. Its period is 360˚.

- The curve is not continuous. It breaks at θ
*=*90 ˚ and 270˚, where the function is undefined - tan θ = 0 when θ = 0 ˚ , 180˚, 360˚ . tan θ = 1 when θ = 45 ˚ and 225˚ .
- tan θ = –1 when θ = 135 ˚ and 315˚ .
- tan θ does not have any maximum or minimum values. The range of values of tan θ is – ∞ < tan θ < ∞
- As the point
*P*moves round the unit circle in either the clockwise or anticlockwise direction, the tangent curve above repeats itself for every interval of**180˚**. Its period is 180˚.

The following video will explain more about the properties of the sine graph, cosine graph and tangent graph. You may want to look at the lesson on unit circle, if you need revision on the unit circle definition of the trigonometric functions.

Graphing the Sine and Cosine Function

Graph the Sine and Cosine functions on the coordinate plane using the unit circle.

Determine the domain and range of the sine and cosine functions.

Determine the period of the sine and cosine functions.

Graph Tangent and identify key properties of the function.

Graph the Tangent function on the coordinate plane using the unit circle.

Determine the domain and range of the Tangent function.

Determine the period of the Tangent function.

This lesson shows examples of graphing transformed y = sin x and y = cos x graphs (including changes in period, amplitude, and both vertical & horizontal translations). There is also an example of how to graph y = tan x using the y = sin x and y = cos x functions.

You can use the Mathway widget below to practice Trigonometry or other math topics. Try the given examples, or type in your own problem. Then click "Answer" to check your answer.