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A series of free Science Lessons for 7th Grade and 8th Grade, KS3 and Checkpoint Science in preparation for GCSE and IGCSE Science.

Leaves contain stomata (openings) to allow carbon dioxide into the leaf. However, it can result in the leaf losing a lot of water. The cells inside the leaf have water on their surface. Some of this water evaporates, and the water vapour can then escape from inside the leaf by diffusion.
Plants growing in drier conditions tend to have small numbers of tiny stomata and only on their lower leaf surface, to save water loss. Most plants regulate the size of stomata with guard cells. Each stoma is surrounded by a pair of sausage-shaped guard cells. The stomata normally close in the dark when no carbon dioxide is needed for photosynthesis.

How to take an imprint of a leaf using nail varnish?
1. Apply the nail polish to the upper or lower side of the leaf evenly in a narrow and thin strip and allow it to dry.
2. When the polish is dry, take a piece of tape and stick it on top of the nail polish.
3. Press down gently to make sure all areas of the polish is attached to the tape.
4. Gently peel the tape from the leaf surface. A cloudy leaf imprint will now be attached to the adhesive tape.
5. Attach the piece of tape with the leaf imprint to a very clean glass slide and label the slide with ID for plant and treatment.
6. View under a microscope.

Stomata and Gas Exchange

Rotate to landscape screen format on a mobile phone or small tablet to use the Mathway widget, a free math problem solver that answers your questions with step-by-step explanations.

You can use the free Mathway calculator and problem solver below to practice Algebra or other math topics. Try the given examples, or type in your own problem and check your answer with the step-by-step explanations.

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