Solutions in School Chemistry, Titration

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Titration is a technique in chemistry used to determine the unknown concentration of a solution. It involves carefully adding a solution of known concentration (called the titrant) to the unknown solution (called the analyte) until a specific endpoint is reached. This endpoint signifies the point where the analyte and titrant have reacted completely, allowing you to calculate the unknown concentration.

Here’s a breakdown of the key steps:

  1. Setting the Stage:
    Prepare the standard solution: Precisely measure and dissolve a known amount of the titrant in a solvent to create a solution with a defined concentration.
    Measure the analyte: Take an accurately measured volume of the unknown solution using calibrated glassware.
    Choose an indicator: Select a chemical that changes color to visually signal the endpoint of the reaction.
  2. Start the titration:
    Fill the burette: The titrant solution is carefully added from a burette, a graduated cylinder with a precise stopcock, allowing for controlled addition in small drops.
    Slow and steady wins the race: Titrate slowly, stirring continuously, to ensure thorough mixing and accurate reaction progress.
    Watch the indicator transform: As the titrant reacts with the analyte, the indicator changes color, signifying the approaching endpoint.
  3. Reaching the Finish Line:
    Endpoint achieved: The chosen indicator undergoes a distinct color change, marking the equivalence point, where all the analyte has reacted with the titrant.
    Record the volume: Note the volume of titrant used from the burette reading.
  4. Use the recorded volume of titrant, its known concentration, and the reaction stoichiometry to calculate the concentration of the unknown solution.
    Common calculations: Molarity (mol/L), mass concentration (g/L), or percentage concentration (%) can be obtained depending on the specific scenario.

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