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A series of free IGCSE Chemistry Lessons (Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry).
Petrochemicals and polymers, Petroleum, Alternative fuels and energy sources, Addition polymerisation , Condensation polymerisation.

The following diagrams show Addition Polymerisation (Polyethene) and Condensation Polymerisation (Polyamide, Polyester). Scroll down the page for more examples and explanations.

Addition Condensation Polymerisation

The following diagrams show Biological Polymers (Amino Acids, Proteins, Glucose, Starch). Scroll down the page for more examples and explanations.

Biological Polymers (Amino Acids, Proteins, Glucose, Starch)

Fractional distillation of hydrocarbons
How the hydrocarbons in crude oil are separated by the process of fractional distillation?
This is critically important as it frequently comes up in exams. Catalytic cracking
How to convert long chain alkanes into shorter chain alkanes and alkenes? This is called catalytic cracking. Biofuels
How plant materials can be converted into biofuels.
We then evaluate the economic, ethical and environmental issues around biofuels. Polymers - Addition Polymerisation
How we make polymers from monomers? How to identify the monomer used to make a polymer and be able to work out the repeating unit for a polymer? Compare Addition and Condensation polymerization
Condensation Polymerisation - Polyesters
Explain the formation of polyesters from dicarboxylic acids and diols. The process is known as condensation polymerisation - forming water molecules together with polyester molecules. Ester link. How to make Polyester (Terylene)?
How to make nylon?

Issues around using polymers
What is meant by the words non-biodegradable?
We then go on to explore the positive aspects of using polymers and then the negative aspects. What are Biopolymers?
How to make carbohydrates?
How to make proteins?
How to make fats?
Hydrolysis of macromolecules
Organic Chemistry
How to manufacture Alcohols and Polymers?

Try the free Mathway calculator and problem solver below to practice various math topics. Try the given examples, or type in your own problem and check your answer with the step-by-step explanations.
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