More Lessons for IGCSE Chemistry
A series of free IGCSE Chemistry Activities and Experiments (Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry).
When metals react with non-metals, electrons are transferred from the metal atoms to the non-metal atoms, forming ions. The resulting compound is called an ionic compound.
Consider reactions between metals and non-metals, for example,
sodium + chlorine → sodium chloride
magnesium + oxygen → magnesium oxide
calcium + chlorine → calcium chloride
In each of these reactions, the metal atoms give electrons to the non-metal atoms. The metal atoms become positive ions and the non-metal atoms become negative ions.
There is a strong electrostatic force of attraction between these oppositely charged ions, called an ionic bond.
Ionic Bonding Group 1
Elements react in order to achieve a full outer energy level.
Explor ionic bonding by looking at what happens when group 1 elements such as lithium react with group 7 elements such as fluorine.
Ionic Bonding Group 2
Explore ionic bonding by looking at the reaction between group 2 metals such as magnesium and group 6 non-metals such as oxygen. How this reaction takes place and the ions produced.
Formula of Ionic Compounds
In an ionic compound, the charges on the ions have to cancel out to leave an overall charge of zero.
1. Define the term "ions" and explain how bonds form between ions.
An ion is a charged atom. Ionic bonding is the force of attraction between charged atoms or ions.
Metallic Bonding are positive ions in a sea of electrons.
Ionic bonding occurs between positively charged metal ions (cations) and negatively charged non-metal ions (anions).
2. Explain how to write ionic compound formulae.
In order to gain a complete outer shell and become stable, metals can transfer electrons to non-metals to form ionic compounds.
Some non-metal compounds can form negative ions.
How to write ionic compound formulae?
3. Explain the properties of a giant ionic lattice.
Describe the structure of ionic compounds
• Closely packed ions of opposing charge in a regular lattice arrangement.
• Ions are held by very strong electrostatic forces of attraction.
Properties of Ionic Lattice Properties
• Very high melting point.
• Soluble in water.
• Conduct electricity when molten(l) or dissolved(aq).
Ionic and covalent compounds
Properties of ionic and covalent compounds
1. Describe how electrons are transfered during ionic bonding (use magnesium iodide as an example).
2. Draw dot and cross diagrams to show ionic bonding (use magnesium iodide as an example).
3. What are the general properties of ionic and covalent compounds?
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