IGCSE 2020 4CH1/2C June (pdf)
- A student is given a mixture of salt solution and sand.
She wants to obtain pure water from the mixture.
(a) She separates the sand from the salt solution.
Which method of separation should she use?
(b) The student then uses this apparatus to obtain pure water from the salt solution.
(i) Name the pieces of apparatus labelled X, Y and Z
(ii) State what remains in the flask when the separation is complete.
- In a chromatography experiment a student uses samples of three pure food dyes,
blue (B), red (R) and yellow (Y).
He also uses samples of four unknown substances, S, T, U and V.
The student puts a small drop of each substance on the pencil line.
The diagram shows the student’s chromatogram at the end of the experiment.
(a) Which of the unknown substances contains only one food dye?
(b) Explain which pure food dyes are in substance V.
(c) (i) Calculate the Rf value of the yellow food dye Y.
(ii) State how the chromatogram suggests that the yellow food dye Y is less soluble
in the solvent than the red food dye R.
- (a) The box gives the names of some metals.
(i) Identify the metal from the box that burns with a bright white flame
(ii) In the Earth, metals are found either in ores or as uncombined elements.
Explain which metal from the box is most likely to be found as an
(b) This is the order of reactivity of four metals.
The method used to obtain a metal from its oxide depends on the reactivity of the metal.
Two possible methods are
Method 1 heating the metal oxide with carbon
Method 2 electrolysis
Explain which method should be used to obtain lead from lead(II) oxide, PbO
Include an equation for the formation of lead in your answer
(c) The diagram shows the arrangement of the particles in a pure metal
Metals are often made into alloys to make them harder.
Explain why alloys are harder than pure metals.
Draw a diagram to support your answer
- Alcohols contain the functional group —OH
(a) Give the structural formula of the alcohol that contains one carbon atom
(b) Ethanol (C2H5OH) is an alcohol that can be obtained from glucose (C6H12O6).
(i) Name the process that converts glucose into ethanol.
(ii) Explain why this process is carried out in the absence of air and at a temperature
(c) The table gives information about some organic compounds in the same homologous series.
(i) Complete the table by giving the missing information.
(ii) Name the homologous series that contains these compounds
(d) The compounds in the table can react with alcohols to form esters.
When preparing esters, a small amount of concentrated sulfuric acid is also used.
(i) State the purpose of the acid.
(ii) Draw the displayed formula of the ester that forms when propanoic acid reacts
(iii) Esters have particular uses that depend on their properties.
Give an example of a property and use of esters.
- The organic compound butadiene is a colourless gas used in the manufacture of
synthetic rubber for tyres.
The displayed formula of butadiene is
(a) Explain why butadiene is described as an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
(b) (i) Butadiene reacts with bromine water.
State the colour change that occurs during this reaction.
(ii) The equation for the reaction between butadiene and bromine can be shown
using displayed formulae.
(c) A scientist does an investigation to find out if butadiene would be a good fuel.
He burns a sample of butadiene gas and observes that carbon forms as black soot.
(i) Complete the equation to explain the scientist’s observation
(ii) Explain how one of the products, other than carbon, may cause a problem
(iii) The equation for the combustion of butadiene in excess oxygen is
2C4H6 + 11O2 → 8CO2 + 6H2O
The enthalpy change for this reaction, ΔH, is – 3446 kJ/mol.
Complete the energy profile diagram for the reaction.
Label the enthalpy change for this reaction, &DElta;H, and the activation energy
- A student is provided with a bottle containing a colourless solution X.
Solution X is thought to be dilute sulfuric acid of concentration 0.10mol/dm3.
The student does some experiments on samples of solution X to try to show that it is
dilute sulfuric acid.
The student adds a few drops of litmus to a sample of solution X.
The litmus turns red.
(a) The student knows that the products of the electrolysis of dilute sulfuric acid are
hydrogen and oxygen.
She carries out the electrolysis using this apparatus
(i) Suggest why the student does not use zinc electrodes in her experiment
(ii) State what is observed at both the anode and the cathode during the electrolysis.
(iii) Which of these tests shows that the gas formed at the cathode is hydrogen?
(b) Describe a test to show that solution X contains sulfate ions
(c) The student then does a titration to see if the concentration of the dilute sulfuric acid
She measures 25.0cm3 of potassium hydroxide solution into a conical flask, and
then adds a few drops of indicator solution.
(i) Name the piece of apparatus the student should use to measure 25.0cm3 of
the potassium hydroxide solution.
(ii) The concentration of potassium hydroxide in the solution is 0.125mol/dm3.
Calculate the amount, in mol, of KOH in 25.0cm3 of this solution
(iii) The equation for the reaction in the titration is
H2SO4 + 2KOH → K2SO4 + 2H2O
Calculate the volume, in cm3, of 0.10mol/dm3
sulfuric acid needed to neutralise 25.0cm3 of the potassium hydroxide solution
- This question is about reactions involving gases.
(a) Potassium carbonate reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to produce carbon dioxide gas.
The equation for the reaction is
K2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2KCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
Calculate the volume, in cm3, of carbon dioxide gas produced when 6.9g of
potassium carbonate reacts with excess dilute hydrochloric acid.
[Mr of K2CO3 = 138]
[molar volume of CO2 at rtp = 24dm3]
(b) This reaction involving gases is in dynamic equilibrium at a temperature of 225°C.
(i) Predict the effect on the yield of CO(g) at equilibrium when the temperature is
increased without changing the pressure.
Give a reason for your answer
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