IGCSE 2020 0625/41 May/June (pdf)
- An aeroplane of mass 2.5 × 105 kg lands with a speed of 62m/ s, on a horizontal runway at time
t = 0. The aeroplane decelerates uniformly as it travels along the runway in a straight line until it reaches a speed of 6.0m/ s at t = 35s.
(i) the deceleration of the aeroplane in the 35s after it lands
(ii) the resultant force acting on the aeroplane as it decelerates
(iii) the momentum of the aeroplane when its speed is 6.0m/s.
(b) At t = 35s, the aeroplane stops decelerating and moves along the runway at a constant speed
of 6.0m/s for a further 15s.
On Fig. 1.1, sketch the shape of the graph for the distance travelled by the aeroplane along
the runway between t = 0 and t = 50s. You are not required to calculate distance values.
(c) As the aeroplane decelerates, its kinetic energy decreases.
Suggest what happens to this energy.
- Fig. 2.1 is the extension–load graph for a light spring S.
(a) State the range of loads for which S obeys Hooke’s law.
(b) Using information from Fig. 2.1, determine the spring constant k of spring S.
(c) A second spring, identical to spring S, is attached to spring S. The two springs are attached
to a rod, as shown in Fig. 2.2. A load of 4.0N is suspended from the bottom of spring S. The
arrangement is in equilibrium.
(i) State the name of the form of energy stored in the two springs when they are stretched.
(ii) Determine the extension of the arrangement in Fig. 2.2.
(iii) The load is carefully increased to 6.0N in total.
Calculate the distance moved by the load to the new equilibrium position as the load
increases from 4.0N to 6.0N.
- Fig. 3.1 shows gas trapped in the sealed end of a tube by a dense liquid.
The scale marked on the sealed end of the tube is calibrated to read the volume of gas trapped
above the liquid surface. Fig. 3.1 shows that initially the volume V1 of the gas is 60cm3.
The pressure of the atmosphere is 1.0 7times; 105Pa.
(a) State how Fig. 3.1 shows that the pressure of the trapped gas is equal to the pressure of the
(b) Explain, in terms of the momentum of its molecules, why the trapped gas exerts a pressure
on the walls of the tube.
(c) More of the dense liquid is poured into the open end of the tube. The level of the liquid surface in both the sealed and the open ends of the tube rises as shown in Fig. 3.2. The temperature of the trapped gas and atmospheric pressure both remain constant.
(i) In the sealed end of the tube, the volume V2 of the trapped gas is 50cm3. In the open end of the tube, the liquid surface is 15cm above the new level in the sealed tube.
Calculate the pressure p2 of the trapped gas.
(ii) Calculate the density of the liquid in the tube.
- Water has a specific heat capacity of 4200J /(kg°C) and a boiling point of 100°C.
(a) State what is meant by boiling point.
(b) A mass of 0.30kg of water at its boiling point is poured into a copper container which is
initially at 11°C. After a few seconds, the temperature of the container and the water are both
(i) Calculate the energy transferred from the water.
(ii) Calculate the thermal capacity of the copper container.
(iii) Water from the container evaporates and the temperature of the remaining water
Explain, in terms of molecules, why evaporation causes the temperature of the remaining
water to decrease.
- The distance between the centre of a thin converging lens and each principal focus is 5.0cm.
(a) Describe what is meant by the term principal focus for a thin converging lens.
(b) The lens is used as a magnifying glass to produce an image I of an object O.
(i) Underline the terms that describe the nature of the image produced by a magnifying
diminished enlarged inverted real same size upright virtual
(ii) Fig. 5.1 is a full-scale diagram of the lens and the image I.
- On Fig. 5.1, mark both principal focuses and label each of them F.
- By drawing on Fig. 5.1, find the position of object O and add object O to the diagram.
(iii) Using Fig. 5.1, determine the distance of object O from the centre of the lens.
- The speed of sound in air is 340m/ s.
(a) Calculate the range of wavelengths for sounds that are audible by a healthy human ear.
(b) Sound waves are longitudinal waves.
Describe how a longitudinal wave differs from a transverse wave.
(c) Fig. 6.1 shows a band in front of a building.
The drum produces a low frequency sound. Other musical instruments produce a high
frequency sound. These sounds are equally loud.
A young man at the side of the building hears the drum but not the high frequency sounds
from the other musical instruments.
Explain why this happens.
- An electromagnet consists of a solenoid X that is made of copper wire. The solenoid contains an
(a) Explain why:
(i) the structure of copper makes it a suitable material for the wire
(ii) iron is a suitable material for the core of an electromagnet.
(b) Fig. 7.1 shows the electromagnet inside a second solenoid Y.
(i) Describe and explain what happens in solenoid Y when solenoid X is connected to an alternating current (a.c.) power supply.
(ii) A switch and a lamp are connected in series with the terminals of solenoid Y. When the
switch is closed, the lamp lights up at normal brightness.
Describe and explain what happens to the current in solenoid X when the switch is closed.
- The power supply used in an electric vehicle contains 990 rechargeable cells each of electromotive force (e.m.f.) 1.2V.
The cells are contained in packs in which all the cells are in series with each other. The e.m.f. of each pack is 54V.
(a) Calculate the number of packs in the power supply.
(b) When in use, each pack supplies a current of 3.5 A.
(i) Calculate the rate at which each cell is transferring chemical energy to electrical energy.
(ii) The packs are connected in parallel to supply a large current to drive the electric vehicle.
Explain why it is necessary to use thick wires to carry this current.
- (a) Describe how a digital signal differs from an analogue signal. You may draw a diagram.
(b) (i) In the appropriate box, draw the symbol for an AND gate and the symbol for an OR gate.
(ii) State how the behaviour of an AND gate differs from that of an OR gate.
(c) An arrangement of logic gates A, B and C is shown in Fig. 9.1. The arrangement has two
inputs, X and Y and two outputs P and Q.
Output P of logic gate B has logic state 1 (high).
(i) Determine the logic states of the two inputs of logic gate B.
(ii) Determine and explain the logic state of output Q.
- Fig. 10.1 represents a neutral atom of an isotope of element X.
(a) State one similarity between this atom and a neutral atom of a different isotope of element X.
(b) The isotope of element X is radioactive. It decays to form an isotope of element Y by emitting
(i) Using Fig. 10.1 deduce the nuclide notation for the isotope of Y produced by this decay.
(ii) β-particles ionise the air they pass through less strongly than the same number of
Suggest why this is so.
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