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Heat and Thermodynamics

A series of free Online High School Physics Video Lessons.

In this lesson, we will learn

  • Temperature
  • Heat
  • Pressure
  • Kinetic and Potential Energy of Atoms
  • Conservation of Energy


Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object. Temperature in science is measured in Celsius or Kelvin.


Heat is the transfer of kinetic energy from one object to another. According to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, heat always transfers from a hot object to a cold one, never the reverse.

Understanding the concept of heat.


Pressure is defined as force per unit of square area. Pressure is measured in pascals (Pa) which is equal to one Newton per square meter.

You may have seen your favorite circus performers or magicians perform the classic Bed of Nails Trick... but what is the secret? Using a smaller version of the bed and a clear balloon, you can see the science behind the trick.
This video shows how to use the formula: Pressure = Force over Area

Kinetic and Potential Energy of Atoms

Kinetic and potential energy of atoms result from the motion of electrons. When electrons are excited they move to a higher energy orbital farther away from the atom. The further the orbital is from the nucleus, the higher the potential energy of an electron at that energy level. When the electron returns to a low energy state, it releases the potential energy in the form of kinetic energy.

How kinetic and potential energy exist in atoms.

Conservation of Energy

The first law of Thermodynamics. Energy cannot br created or destroyed. It can be transformed from one form to another.

How energy is neither created nor destroyed?
This video demonstrates conservation of kinetic and potential energy.
A brief overview of the law of conservation of energy and selected problem-solving applications.

Try the free Mathway calculator and problem solver below to practice various math topics. Try the given examples, or type in your own problem and check your answer with the step-by-step explanations.
Mathway Calculator Widget

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