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Parts of a Cell

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A series of free High School Biology Video Lessons.

Vacuoles - Vesicles
Vesicles and vacuoles are sacs used for storage inside eukaryotic cells. Plant cells have a single vacuole which is generally the largest organelle inside the cell. In animal cells, there are several vesicles which are smaller and more numerous than vacuoles.

The description of vacuole and vesicles.
The chloroplast is the organelle in which photosynthesis takes place. Inside the chloroplast there are disk like structures called thylakoids arranged in stacks called granum. The light dependent reaction takes place across the membranes of the thylakoids while the Calvin Cycle takes place in the stroma, which is the semi liquid substance inside the chloroplast.

The structure and importance of chloroplast.

Cilia - Flagella
Cilia and flagella are tube-like appendages which allow for motion in eukaryotic cells. If a cell has a single appendage, which often looks tail-like, it is called a flagellum, but if it has many, they are called cilia. The motion of the cilia or flagellum moves the liquid outside the cell and if the cell is not anchored, it can "swim." A commonly recognized example is the "tail" on a sperm cell, which is actually a flagellum.

The description of cilia and flagella.
Cytoskeleton - Cytoplasm
The cytoskeleton provides structure within a cell. It is found in all cells and is important for cellular motion (using structures such as flagella and cilia) and intracellular transport. Cytoplasm is the gelatinous material that fills the interior of a cell. It is liquid-like enough to allow for intracellular transport and motion but thick enough to hold everything in place.

The structure of cytoskeleton.The structure of cytoskeleton.

Cell Membrane - Cell Wall
Cell walls are only found in plant cells and are used primarily to create structure, but cell membranes are found in all cells. The bulk of the membrane is composed of a double layer of lipids called the lipid bilayer. Inside the bilayer there is a layer of cholesterol to keep the membrane fluid. Imbedded in the membrane are various proteins which provide channels for specific molecules to pass through, making the membrane semi-permeable.

The structure and composition of the cell membrane and of cell wall.

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