Chemical Bonds

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A series of free High School Chemistry Video Lessons.

In this lesson, we will learn

  • Ionic Bond
  • Covalent Bond
  • Ionic Compound Properties vs Covalent Compound Properties
  • Metallic Bond

Ionic Bond
In an ionic bond, two ions are held together by electrostatic force. These two atoms are trying to attain full valence shells of eight electrons. One atom has too many electrons and another has too few so one atom donates electrons and the other accepts them. The donor atom forms a cation, or positively charged ion and the other forms an anion, a negatively charged ion. The two are held together by the electrostatic attraction between opposite charges.

The properties and structure of ionic bonds.

Ionic bonding, properties of ionic compounds and ionic dot diagrams covered here.

Covalent Bond
Molecules are bound by covalent bonds in which two atoms with unfilled valence shells share electrons so that they each have a full octet. If one atom is more electronegative than the other, it holds onto the shared electrons more tightly, pulling the negatively charged electron cloud towards itself and resulting in an imbalance of charges called polarity. If a single covalent bond isn’t enough for two atoms to fill their octets, they may share two or more pairs of electrons.

The properties and structure of covalent bonds.

How unpaired valence electrons are shared in the formation of covalent bonds?

Ionic Compound Properties vs Covalent Compound Properties
Ionic compound properties stem from their structure. Ionic compounds are found in lattice structures, making them extremely brittle. Ionic compounds have high melting points and form electrolytic solutions, which conduct electricity. Covalent compounds, on the other hand, are comparatively soft and round, have relativley low melting and boiling points and form non-electrolytic solutions.

Understanding the properties of ionic compounds as opposed to covalent compounds.

What are the properties of ionic compounds and covalent compounds?
Why are these properties different? What gives different compounds different properties?

Metallic Bond
A metallic bond shares electrons but unlike ionic bonds, it does not fill the valence shell octets of the bonding atoms. All of the electrons involved form one huge electron cloud which all the nuclei share. The attraction of the nuclei to the electrons keeps them together. Metallic solids are very conductive because of this electron cloud and are malleable.

The properties and structure of metallic bonds
Tutorial on the electron sea model of metallic bonding and the model’s relationship to metallic properties such as malleability, hardness, high melting point, conductivity, and lustre.

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