Chemical Analysis

Related Topics:
More Lessons for IGCSE Chemistry
Math Worksheets

A series of free IGCSE Chemistry Lessons (Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry).
Chemical analysis and investigation, Inorganic analysis, Organic analysis, Experimental design, and investigation, Practical examinations.

Tests for anions, cations, carbonate ions, halide ions, nitrates ions, sulfate ions, sulfide ions, ammonia, carbon dioxide, chlorine, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur dioxide, flame tests for metal ions, test for water, acid, base, alkane, alkene and unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Share this page to Google Classroom

The following table shows the tests for anions:
Carbonate, Chloride, Bromide, Iodide, Nitrate, Sulfate and Sulfite. Scroll down the page for examples of how to use the Anion Tests.
Tests for Anions

The following table shows the tests for cations:
Aluminium, ammonium, calcium, chromium(III), copper, iron(II), iron(III), Zinc. Scroll down the page for examples of how to use the Cation Tests.
Tests for Cations

Testing for carbonate ions in solution.
Add dilute acid effervescence, carbon dioxide produced

Testing for halide ions in solution: Chloride, Bromide, Iodide
Acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate
Chloride - white ppt, Bromide - cream ppt, Iodide - yellow ppt.

Testing for nitrate ions in solution
Add aqueous sodium hydroxide, then aluminium foil; warm carefully, ammonia produced

Testing for sulfate ions in solution
Acidify, then add aqueous barium nitrate, white ppt formed.

Testing for sulfide ions in solution
Add dilute hydrochloric acid, warm gently and test for the presence of sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide produced will turn acidified aqueous potassium manganate(VII) from purple to colourless

Testing for Cations
Copper, Iron(II), Iron(III), Zinc, Ammonium

The following table shows the tests for gases:
Ammonia, Carbon Dioxide, Chlorine, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulfur Dioxide. Tests for Gases

The Tests for Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen and Hydrogen
carbon dioxide (limewater goes milky); oxygen (a glowing splint re-lights) and hydrogen (a lighted splint produces a ‘squeaky pop’ sound).

The following table shows the flame tests for metal ions:
Lithium - Red, Sodium - Yellow, Potassium - Lilac, Copper(II) - blue-green. Flame Tests for Metal Ions

Flame Test of Ions Lab Experiment - Li, Na, K, Sr, and Cu Ions

The following table shows the tests for water, acid, base, alkane and alkene.
Tests for acid, base, alkene

Test for Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
The bromine water is initially an orange-brown colour. If the liquid being tested turns the bromine colourless then the compound id unsaturated - it contains at least one double bond. Alkanes are saturated and would not react.

Try the free Mathway calculator and problem solver below to practice various math topics. Try the given examples, or type in your own problem and check your answer with the step-by-step explanations.
Mathway Calculator Widget

We welcome your feedback, comments and questions about this site or page. Please submit your feedback or enquiries via our Feedback page.