Molecular Biology

A series of free High School Biology Video Lessons. In this lesson, we will learn Biology Transcription, Biology Translation, Genetic Mutation and Gene Cloning.

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Biology Transcription
Transcription is the process in biology in which a cell forms messenger RNA (mRNA) to guide protein synthesis, also known as translation. The mRNA copies a single gene from the DNA in the form of a series of codons. Codons are groups of three bases which indicate which amino acid the ribosome should use to form proteins.
The formation of mRNA.

Biology Translation
Translation is the process in biology in which a ribosome uses the information stored in messenger RNA (mRNA) link together the sequence of amino acids which form proteins. Translation is preceded by transcription in which the mRNA is formed. tRNA then brings amino acids to the ribosome which latches to the mRNA, matching the codons in the mRNA to the tRNA. The three steps to translation are initiation, elongation and termination.
The synthesis of proteins.

Genetic Mutation
Genetic mutation is a change in DNA caused by random errors in DNA replication or by the presence of mutagens which leads to increased genetic variation. A point mutation is a single change, either through base substitution or insertion/deletion. Chromosomal mutation on the other hand, affects large portions of DNA through deletion/insertion, duplication, inversion, translocation or non-disjunction.
Random errors in genes and their effects.

Gene Cloning
Gene cloning is a process in which we insert a section of DNA into a cell and then let the cell undergo mitosis, creating copies of that genetic information. Gene cloning is different from organism cloning, which uses an organism’s DNA to produce a genetically identical organism, because it only produces cells, not an entire organism. To clone genes, scientists “cut” out a specific gene using a restriction enzyme, “glue” it into a vector DNA using the enzyme ligase, then insert the vector DNA into bacteria which reproduces, thus cloning this new DNA along with its own.
The process of gene cloning.

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