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Translation - Biology

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This video describes the process of adding amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain during translation.
mRNA Translation (Basic)
TRANSCRIPT: When the RNA copy is complete, it snakes out into the outer part of the cell. Then in a dazzling display of choreography, all the components of a molecular machine lock together around the RNA to form a miniature factory called a ribosome. It translates the genetic information in the RNA into a string of amino acids that will become a protein. Special transfer molecules, the green triangles, bring each amino acid to the ribosome. The amino acids are the small red tips attached to the transfer molecules. There are different transfer molecules for each of the twenty amino acids. Each transfer molecule carries a three letter code that is matched with the RNA in the machine. Now we come to the heart of the process. Inside the ribosome, the RNA is pulled through like a tape. The code for each amino acid is read off, three letters at a time, and matched to three corresponding letters on the transfer molecules. When the right transfer molecule plugs in, the amino acid it carries is added to the growing protein chain. Again, you are watching this in real time. And after a few seconds the assembled protein starts to emerge from the ribosome. Ribosomes can make any kind of protein. It just depends what genetic message you feed in on the RNA. In this case, the end product is hemoglobin. The cells in our bone marrow churn out a hundred trillion molecules of it per second! And as a result, our muscles, brain and all the vital organs in our body receive the oxygen they need.

mRNA Translation (Advanced)
The job of the mRNA is to carry the gene's message from the DNA out of the nucleus to a ribosome for production of the particular protein that this gene codes for.
TRANSCRIPT: The job of this mRNA is to carry the genes message from the DNA out of the nuceus to a ribosome for production of the particular protein that this gene codes for. There can be several million ribosomes in a typical eukaryotic cell these complex catalytic machines use the mrna copy of the genetic information to assemble amino acid building blokes into the three dimensional proteins that are essential for life. Lets see how it works. The ribosome is composed of one large and one small sub-unit that assemble around the messenger RNA, which then passes through the ribosome like a computer tape. The amino acid building blocks (that's the small glowing red molecules) are carried into the ribosome attached to specific transfer RNAs. That's the larger green molecules also referred to as tRNA. The small sub-unit of the ribosome positions the mRNA so that it can be read in groups of three letters known as a codon. Each codon on the mRNA matches a corresponding anti-codon on the base of a transfer RNA molecule.The larger sub-unit of the ribosome removes each amino acid and join it onto the growing protein chain. As the mRNA is ratcheted through the ribosome, the mRNA sequence is translated into an amino acid sequence. There are three locations inside the ribosome, designated the A-site, the P-site and the E-site. The addition of each amino acid is a three step cycle: First, the tRNA enters the ribosome at the A-site and is tested for a codon/anti-codon match with the mRNA. Next, provided there is a correct match, the tRNA is shifted to the P-site and the amino acid it carries is added to the end of the amino acid chain. The mRNA is also ratcheted on three nucleotides or one codon. Thirdly, the spent tRNA is moved to the E-site and then ejected from the ribosome to be recycled. As the protein synthesis proceeds, the finished chain emerges from the ribosome. It folds up into a precise shape, determined by the exact order of amino acids. Thus the Central Dogma explains how the four letter DNA code is - quite literally - turned into flesh and blood.
Protein Synthesis: Translation Process
In the translation process, interpretation of genetic codes in form of codon along mRNA would create a particular protein. The translator is the transfer RNA (tRNA) which has three nucleoide (anticodon) specific for each type of amino acid. The anticodon bond to the complementary codon of the mRNA and transfering amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosome.

Translation: Atomic View
In this video, the crystal structure of the ribosome reveals many insights into the molecular mechanism of translation.

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