# Probability and Fair Decisions

Videos and lessons to help High School students learn how use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator).

Common Core: HSS-MD.A.6

Random Number Generator
Curious how the Lottery chooses their Lotto numbers?
To ensure the fairness and integrity, the Idaho Lottery uses an industry standard Random Number Generator (RNG). The RNG is licensed, rigorously tested and approved to create the winning numbers for the daily Idaho Pick 3 game and for second-chance drawings, plus big games like the Idaho \$1,000,000 Raffle. The randomness of the RNG is certified by Gaming Laboratories Inc., a global independent gaming equipment testing corporation.

The RNG uses a minuscule, trace amount of plutonium to help generate the numbers. Plutonium decays in a completely random method. When processed with light flashes and an independent computer software program, the RNG will always produce a truly random selection of numbers within the range programmed. The RNG is the most accurate method to ensure complete randomness to any number selection.

Powerball PowerPlay and Mega Millions, which has a live television draw every Wednesday and Saturday night, does not use a RNG.

Random vs. Pseudorandom Number Generators.

How Machines Generate Random Numbers with Time
Pseudorandom number generators are explained using John Von Neumann's middle squares method. Machines can't roll dice so they do a trick to generate randomness - they grow randomness. The middle squares method is explained from a computer science perspective using clocks as seeds.

Rotate to landscape screen format on a mobile phone or small tablet to use the Mathway widget, a free math problem solver that answers your questions with step-by-step explanations.

You can use the free Mathway calculator and problem solver below to practice Algebra or other math topics. Try the given examples, or type in your own problem and check your answer with the step-by-step explanations.