Organic Chemistry

A series of free High School Chemistry Video Lessons.

In this lesson, we will learn

  • Hydrocarbon
  • Alkanes
  • Alkenes - Alkynes
  • Naming Alkenes - Naming Alkynes

 

 

Hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon are the simplest types of organic compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen. There are several types of hydrocarbons including halocarbons, alcohols, ethers, amines, aldehydes, keytones and carboxylic acids.

An introduction to the simplest type of organic compound.

 

 

Alkanes
Alkanes are hydrocarbons that only consist of single bonds. The ratio of carbon atoms to hydrogen atoms in alkanes is always in the form of n: 2n + 2.

Naming Alkanes
Naming alkanes can be difficult because each alkane consists of a parent chain and one or more branches. First, it is necessary to count the number of atoms in the longest chain. Then we name the branches based upon how many atoms they contain and number the branches by the atom in the parent chain they connect to, keeping the numbers as low as possible. For multiple identical branches, prefixes are necessary to indicate quantity.

How to name alkanes.

 

 

Naming Simple Alkanes

 

 

Alkenes - Alkynes
Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated bonds that contain one or more double or triple bonds (e.g., ethene, propene, butene, etc.) and have different chemical compounds and properties. Their properties are similar to those of alkanes meaning that they are non-polar, have low solubility in water and have low melting and boiling points. Alkenes and alkynes are much more reactive than alkanes.

An introduction to alkenes and alkynes.

 

 

Naming Alkenes - Naming Alkynes
The rules in naming alkenes and alkyles are generally similar to naming alkanes, but also include denoting multiple bonds. First, it is necessary to count the number of atoms in the longest chain. Then we number the branches, always using the lowest numbers possible. Finally, chains or branches that include multiple bonds have different suffixes.

 How to name alkenes and alkynes.

 

 

 

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