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Mendelian Genetics

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A series of free High School Biology Video Lessons.

Law of Segregation
Gregor Mendel's law of segregation has four parts. First, it defines an allele. Second, it states that organisms inherit one allele from each parent. Third, it states that gametes only carry one allele for each trait. Fourth, it defines the difference between dominant and recessive genes.
The concept and usage of Law of Segregation.
Law of Independent Assortment
Gregor Mendel's law of independent assortment states that when genes are inherited, they are inherited independent of each other. Linked genes are exceptions to the law of independent assortment because two genes are located on the same chromosome, but this is generally mitigated when chromosomes cross over.
Understanding the concept of Law of Independent Assortment.

Heredity Theory
Gregor Mendel pioneered heredity theory, proving that many physical traits can be passed on from generation to generation. These inheritable traits are dictated by DNA. Mendel explains heredity theory in the law of independent assortment and in the law of segregation.
Understanding the Heredity Theory used in Mendelian genetics.
Genetic Variation
Within and between populations there is genetic variation, or variations in individuals' genetic makeup. This variation allows for natural selection and can sometimes be caused by mutations within a population.
Understanding the concept of genetic variation.

An allele is one of the possible forms of a gene. Most genes have two alleles, a dominant allele and a recessive allele. If an organism is heterozygous for that trait, or possesses one of each allele, then the dominant trait is expressed. A recessive allele is only expressed if an organism is homozygous for that trait, or possesses two recessive alleles. Alleles were first defined by Gregor Mendel in the law of segregation
The description of alleles.

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