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Kinetic Molecular Theory

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More Lessons for High School Chemistry

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A series of free High School Chemistry Video Lessons and solutions.

In this lesson, we will learn

  • three states of matter
  • phase change
  • phase diagrams
  • boiling points

Three States of Matter
The three states of matter, also called the phases of matter, are solid, liquid and gas. Matter changes phases based upon thermodynamic principles like enthalpy and entropy. At room temperature, different elements are in different states because of their intermolecular forces.

The properties of the three phases of matter.
Introduction to the states or phases of matter.

Phase Change
Phase changes are the transformations from one state of matter to another due to thermodynamics. The processes of phase change between solid and liquid are called melting and freezing. Phase changes between liquid and gas are vaporization and condensation. Phase changes between gas and solid are deposition and sublimation. Phase changes can be spontaneous or non-spontaneous.

How to predict and understand the circumstances under which matter changes phase.
What does a phase change look like at the molecular level? We'll look at the molecular structure in solid, liquid, and gas phases, and see how the kinetic energy of the particles changes. We'll talking about melting, vaporization, condensation, and freezing.

Phase Diagrams
Phase diagrams graphically depict the state of matter in varying temperatures and pressures. The x-axis of a phase diagram is always temperature while the y-axis is always pressure. There is a point on a phase diagram called the triple point at which all three phases of matter exist simultaneously.

How to draw and interpret phase diagrams.
This video explains how simple phase change diagrams are made and how to read them.

Boiling Point
Boiling point is the particular temperature where vapor pressure equals to of a liquid equals to the surrounding environmental liquid. At this temperature the liquid begins to bubble as liquid below the surface turns to gas and escapes upwards.

The point at which matter boils.
This lesson connects vapor pressure to boiling point, and discusses why there are different boiling points at different elevations.


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