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Cell Functions and Processes

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More Lessons for High School Biology

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A series of free High School Biology Video Lessons.

Calvin Cycle
The Calvin cycle is the second step of photosynthesis which converts ATP into glucose for storage. It is also called the "light independent reaction" or the "dark reaction" because unlike the light dependent reaction, light plays no role in the reaction. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma, the semi-liquid fluid inside chloroplasts.
Different steps in the Calvin Cycle.
Krebs Cycle
The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle, is involved in cell respiration and produces NADH and FADH2 for the electron transport chain. The Krebs cycle also produces two ATP, but much more ATP is produced later, in the electron transport chain, so that is not its main purpose.
The different steps in the Krebs Cycle.

Light Dependent Reaction
The light dependent reaction is the first step of photosynthesis which converts light energy into ATP. The light dependent reaction takes place inside the chloroplasts along the thylakoid membrane.
The mechanisms in light dependent reactions.
Light Dependent Reaction
The electron transport system is the stage in cellular respiration in which oxidative phosphorylation occurs and the bulk of the ATP is produced. The electron transport system creates an electron gradient inside the mitochondria along the inner membrane so that when protons re-enter the matrix through the ATP synthase, their potential energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP.
An overview of the election transport system.


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